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HIV Prevention & Risk Behaviour

Despite considerable progress in the area of HIV prevention, HIV infection rates among many urban populations remain unacceptably high. Consequently, researchers are seeking to identify the factors that increase vulnerability to HIV exposure in order to develop new interventions to prevent the transmission of HIV. A core activity of the Urban Health Research Initiative involves monitoring HIV infection rates among injection drug users and other marginalized populations, and identifying the various factors that exacerbate risk for HIV infection.

Publications

  • Werb D, Richardson C, Buxton J, Shoveller J, Wood E, Kerr T. Development of a brief substance use sensation seeking scale: Validation and prediction of injection-related behaviors. AIDS and Behavior, 2014 Aug 14 [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed 
  • Milloy MJ, Montaner JSG, Wood E. Incarceration of people living with HIV/AIDS: Implications for Treatment-as-Prevention. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 2014; 11(3): 308-316. PubMed
  • Milloy MJ, Montaner JSG, Wood E. Incarceration of people living with HIV/AIDS: Implications for Treatment-as-Prevention. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 2014 Jun 25 [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed
  • Markwick N, Ti L, Callon C, Feng C, Wood E, Kerr T. Willingness to engage in peer-delivered HIV voluntary counselling and testing among people who inject drugs in a Canadian setting. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 2014; 68(7): 675-678. PubMed
  • Ahamad K, DeBeck K, Feng C, Sakakibara T, Kerr T, Wood E. Gender influences on initiation of injecting drug use. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2014; 40(2): 151-156. PubMed
  • Milloy MJS, Kerr T, Salters K, Samji H, Guillemi S, Montaner J, Wood E. Incarceration is associated with used syringe lending among active injection drug users with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA: a longitudinal analysis. BMC Infectious Diseases, 2013; 13(1): 565. PubMed
  • Long C, DeBeck K, Feng C, Montaner J, Wood E, Kerr T. Income level and drug related harm among people who use injection drugs in a Canadian setting. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2014: 25(3): 458-464. PubMed
  • Werb D, Kerr T, Buxton J, Shoveller J, Richardson C, Montaner J, Wood E. Crystal methamphetamine and initiation of injection drug use among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2013; 185(18): 1569-1575. PubMed
  • Hayashi K, Ti L, Fairbairn N, Kaplan K, Suwannawong P, Wood E, Kerr T. Drug-related harm among people who inject drugs in Thailand: Summary findings from the Mitsampan Community Research Project. Harm Reduction Journal, 2013; 10(1): 21. PubMed
  • Werb D, Buxton J, Shoveller J, Richardson C, Rowell G, Wood E. Interventions to prevent the initiation of injection drug use: A systematic review. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2013; 133(2): 669-676. PubMed
  • Leung LTF, Ti L, Hayashi K, Suwannawong P, Kaplan K, Wood E, Kerr T. Health and safety risks associated with public injecting among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2013; 32(6): 582-587. PubMed
  • Hayashi K, Suwannawong P, Ti L, Kaplan K, Wood E, Kerr T. High rates of midazolam injection and associated harms in Bangkok, Thailand. Addiction, 2013; 108(5): 944-952. PubMed
  • Marshall BDL, Wood E. Putting risk compensation to rest: Reframing the relationship between risk behavior and antiretroviral therapy among injection drug users. AIDS, 2012; 26(18): 2405-2407. PubMed
  • Ti L, Hayashi K, Kaplan K, Suwannawong P, Wood E, Montaner J, Kerr T. HIV test avoidance among people who inject drugs in Thailand. AIDS and Behavior, 2013; 17(7): 2474-2478. PubMed
  • Feng C, DeBeck K, Kerr T, Mathias S, Montaner J, Wood E. Homelessness independently predicts injection drug use initiation among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2013; 52(4): 499-501. PubMed Summary
  • Hadland SE, Werb D, Kerr T, Fu E, Wang H, Montaner JS, Wood E. Childhood sexual abuse and risk for initiating injection drug use: A prospective cohort study. Preventive Medicine, 2012; 55(5): 500-504. PubMed Summary
  • Ti L, Buxton J, Wood E, Shannon K, Zhang R, Montaner J, Kerr T. Factors associated with difficulty accessing crack cocaine pipes in a Canadian setting. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2012; 31(7): 890-896. PubMed
  • Milloy MJ, Montaner J, Wood E. Barriers to HIV treatment among people who use injection drugs: Implications for ‘treatment as prevention’. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, 2012; 7(4): 332-338. PubMed
  • Ti L, Hayashi K, Kaplan K, Suwannawong P, Fu E, Wood E, Kerr T. HIV testing and willingness to get HIV testing at a peer-run drop-in centre for people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand. BMC Public Health, 2012; 12(1): 189. PubMed
  • Wood E, Milloy M-J, Montaner JSG. HIV treatment as prevention among injection drug users. Current Opinions in HIV and AIDS, 2012; 7(2): 151-156. PubMed
  • Marshall BDL, Milloy MJ, Wood E, Galea S, Kerr T. Temporal and geographic shifts in urban and non-urban cocaine-related fatal overdoses in British Columbia, Canada. Annals of Epidemiology, 2012; 22(3): 198-206. PubMed
  • Ti L, Buxton J, Wood E, Zhang R, Montaner J, Kerr T. Difficulty accessing crack pipes and crack pipe sharing among people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 2011; 6(1): 34. PubMed Summary
  • Small W, Kerr T. HIV treatment as prevention and the role of applied social science research. Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research, 2011; 2(6): 102e.
  • Johnston CL, Marshall BDL, Qi J, Zonneveld CJ, Kerr T, Montaner JSG, Wood E. HIV knowledge and perceptions of risk in a young, urban, drug-using population. Public Health, 2011; 125(11): 791-794. PubMed Summary
  • Shannon K, Kerr T, Milloy M, Anema A, Zhang R, Montaner JS, Wood E. Severe food insecurity is associated with elevated unprotected sex among HIV-seropositive injection drug users independent of HAART use. AIDS, 2011; 25(16): 2037-2042. PubMed
  • Reddon H, Wood E, Tyndall M, Lai C, Hogg R, Montaner J, Kerr T. Use of North America’s first medically supervised safer injecting facility among HIV-positive injection drug users. AIDS Education and Prevention, 2011; 23(5): 412-422. PubMed
  • DeBeck K, Wood E, Zhang R, Buxton J, Montaner J, Kerr T. A dose-dependent relationship between exposure to a street-based drug scene and health-related harms among people who use injection drugs. Journal of Urban Health, 2011; 88(4): 724-735. PubMed
  • Hadland SE, Marshall BDL, Kerr T, Zhang R, Montaner JS, Wood E. A comparison of drug use and risk behavior profiles among younger and older street youth. Substance Use & Misuse, 2011; 46(12): 1486-1494. PubMed
  • Walton G, Co SJ, Milloy M-J, Qi J, Kerr T, Wood E. High prevalence of childhood emotional, physical and sexual trauma among a Canadian cohort of HIV-seropositive illicit drug users. AIDS Care, 2011; 23(6): 714-721. PubMed
  • Marshall BDL, Wood E, Shoveller JA, Buxton JA, Montaner JSG, Kerr T. Individual, social, and environmental factors associated with initiating methamphetamine injection: Implications for drug use and HIV prevention strategies. Prevention Science, 2011; 12(2): 173-180. PubMed
  • Kuyper L, Milloy M-J, Marshall BDL, Zhang R, Kerr T, Montaner JSG, Wood E. Does initiation of HIV antiretroviral therapy influence patterns of syringe lending among injection drug users? Addictive Behaviors, 2011; 36(5): 560-563. PubMed
  • Marshall BDL, Shoveller JA, Wood E, Patterson TL, Kerr T. Difficulty accessing syringes mediates the relationship between methamphetamine use and syringe sharing among young injection drug users. AIDS and Behavior, 2011; 15(7): 1546-1553. PubMed
  • Hayashi K, Wood E, Suwannawong P, Kaplan K, Qi J, Kerr T. Methamphetamine injection and syringe sharing among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2011; 115(1-2): 145-149. PubMed
  • Marshall BDL, Wood E, Shoveller JA, Patterson TL, Montaner JSG, Kerr T. Pathways to HIV risk and vulnerability among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered methamphetamine users: a multi-cohort gender-based analysis. BMC Public Health, 2011; 11(1): 20. PubMed
  • Marshall BDL, Wood E. Toward a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention for people who use drugs. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2010; 55 Suppl 1: S23-S26. PubMed
  • Rachlis BS, Wood E, Li K, Hogg RS, Kerr T. Drug and HIV-related risk behaviors after geographic migration among a cohort of injection drug users. AIDS and Behavior, 2010; 14(4): 854-861. PubMed
  • Rachlis B, Lloyd-Smith E, Small W, Tobin D, Stone D, Li K, Wood E, Kerr T. Harmful microinjecting practices among a cohort of injection drug users in Vancouver Canada. Substance Use & Misuse, 2010; 45(9): 1351-1366. PubMed
  • Kerr T, Small W, Buchner C, Zhang R, Li K, Montaner J, Wood E. Syringe sharing and HIV incidence among injection drug users and increased access to sterile syringes. American Journal of Public Health, 2010; 100(8): 1449-1453. PubMed Summary
  • Marshall BDL, Kerr T, Qi J, Montaner JSG, Wood E. Public injecting and HIV risk behaviour among street-involved youth. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2010; 110(3): 254-258. PubMed
  • Kerr T, Hayashi K, Fairbairn N, Kaplan K, Suwannawong P, Zhang R, Wood E. Expanding the reach of harm reduction in Thailand: Experiences with a drug user-run drop-in centre. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2010; 21(3): 255-258. PubMed Summary
  • Lloyd-Smith E, Rachlis BS, Tobin D, Stone D, Li K, Small W, Wood E, Kerr T. Assisted injection in outdoor venues: An observational study of risks and implications for service delivery and harm reduction programming. Harm Reduction Journal, 2010; 7(1): 6. PubMed
  • Kerr T, Fairbairn N, Hayashi K, Suwannawong P, Kaplan K, Zhang R, Wood E. Difficulty accessing syringes and syringe borrowing among injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2009; 29(2): 157-161. PubMed
  • Kerr T, Kiatying-Angsulee N, Fairbairn N, Hayashi K, Suwannawong P, Kaplan K, Lai C, Wood E. High rates of midazolam injection among drug users in Bangkok, Thailand. Harm Reduction Journal, 2010; 7(1): 7. PubMed
  • Debeck K, Kerr T, Li K, Fischer B, Buxton J, Montaner J, Wood E. Smoking of crack cocaine as a risk factor for HIV infection among people who use injection drugs. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2009; 181(9): 585-589. PubMed Summary
  • Milloy M-JS, Buxton J, Wood E, Li K, Montaner JSG, Kerr T. Elevated HIV risk behaviour among recently incarcerated injection drug users in a Canadian setting: A longitudinal analysis. BMC Public Health, 2009; 9(1): 156. PubMed Summary
  • Wood E, Kerr T, Marshall BD, Li K, Zhang R, Harrigan PR, Hogg RS, Montaner JS. Longitudinal community plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations and incidence of HIV-1 among injecting drug users: Prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal, 2009; 338: b1649. PubMed Summary
  • Marshall BDL, Kerr T, Shoveller JA, Montaner JSG, Wood E. Structural factors associated with an increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection transmission among street-involved youth. BMC Public Health, 2009; 9(1): 7. PubMed Summary
  • Marshall BDL, Kerr T, Livingstone C, Li K, Montaner JSG, Wood E. High prevalence of HIV infection among homeless and street-involved Aboriginal youth in a Canadian setting. Harm Reduction Journal, 2008; 5(1): 35. PubMed Summary
  • Marshall BDL. The contextual determinants of sexually transmissible infections among street-involved youth in North America. Culture, Health, and Sexuality, 2008; 10(8): 787-799. PubMed
  • Marshall B, Wood E, Zhang R, Tyndall M, Montaner JS, Kerr T. Condom use among injection drug users accessing a supervised injecting facility. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2009; 85(2): 121-126. PubMed Summary
  • Lloyd-Smith E, Wood E, Li K, Montaner JS, Kerr T. Incidence and determinants of initiation into cocaine injection and correlates of frequent cocaine injectors. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2009; 99(1-3): 176-182. PubMed Summary
  • DeBeck K, Small W, Wood E, Li K, Montaner JS, Kerr T. Public injecting among a cohort of injection drug users in Vancouver, Canada. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2009; 63(1): 81-86. PubMed Summary
  • Lloyd-Smith E, Kerr T, Zhang R, Montaner JS, Wood E. High prevalence of syringe sharing among street involved youth. Addiction Research & Theory, 2008; 16(4): 353-358. Summary
  • Milloy M-J, Wood E, Small W, Tyndall M, Lai C, Montaner JS, Kerr T. Incarceration experiences in a cohort of active injection drug users. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2008; 27(6): 693-699. PubMed Summary
  • Hoda Z, Kerr T, Li K, Montaner JS, Wood E. Prevalence and correlates of jugular injections among injection drug users. Drug and Alcohol Review. 2008; 27(4): 442-446. PubMed Summary
  • Wood E, Stoltz J, Zhang R, Strathdee SA, Montaner JS, Kerr T. Circumstances of first crystal methamphetamine use and initiation of injection drug use among high-risk youth. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2008; 27(3): 270-276. PubMed Summary
  • Wood A, Wood E, Lai C, Tyndall M, Montaner JS, Kerr T. Nurse-delivered safer injection education among a cohort of injection drug users: Evidence from the evaluation of Vancouver’s supervised injection facility. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2008; 19(3): 183-188. PubMed Summary
  • Werb D, Kerr T, Small W, Li K, Montaner JS, Wood E. HIV risks associated with incarceration among injection drug users: Implications for prison-based public health strategies. Journal of Public Health (Oxford), 2008; 30(2): 126-132. PubMed Summary
  • Werb D, Wood E, Small W, Strathdee S, Li K, Montaner JS, Kerr T. Effects of police confiscation of illicit drugs and syringes among injection drug users in Vancouver. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2008; 19: 332-338. PubMed
  • Wood E, Schachar J, Li K, Stoltz J-A, Miller C, Lloyd-Smith E, Tyndall MW, Kerr T. Sex trade involvement is associated with elevated HIV incidence among injection drug users in Vancouver. Addiction Research & Theory, 2007; 15(3): 321-325.
  • Miller CL, Strathdee SA, Li K, Kerr T, Wood E. A longitudinal investigation into excess risk for blood-borne infection among young injection drug users (IDUs). American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2007; 33(4): 527-536. PubMed
  • Marshall BD, Wood E, Li K, Kerr T. Elevated syringe borrowing among men who have sex with men: A prospective study. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2007; 46(2): 248-252. PubMed
  • Rachlis B, Brouwer KC, Mills EJ, Hayes M, Kerr T, Hogg RS. Migration and transmission of blood-borne infections among injection drug users: Understanding the epidemiologic bridge. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2007; 90(2/3): 107-119. PubMed
  • Wood E. Gender and risk factors for initiation into injection drug use. Drug Alcohol Review, 2007; 26(3): 333-334. PubMed
  • Small W, Rhodes T, Wood E, Kerr T. Public injection settings in Vancouver: Physical environment, social context and risk. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2007; 18: 27-36. PubMed
  • Wood E, Lloyd-Smith E, Li K, Strathdee SA, Small W, Tyndall MW, Montaner JS, Kerr T. Frequent needle exchange use and HIV incidence in Vancouver, Canada. American Journal of Medicine, 2007; 120(2): 172-179. PubMed
  • Maas B, Fairbairn N, Kerr T, Li K, Montaner JS, Wood E. Neighborhood and HIV infection among IDU: place of residence independently predicts HIV infection among a cohort of injection drug users. Health & Place, 2007; 13(2): 432-439. PubMed
  • Fairbairn N, Kerr T, Buxton JA, Li K, Montaner JS, Wood E. Increasing use and associated harms of crystal methamphetamine injection in a Canadian setting. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2007; 88(2-3): 313-316. PubMed
  • Wood E, Kerr T. Needle exchange and the HIV outbreak among injection drug users in Vancouver Canada. Substance Use & Misuse, 2006; 41(6-7): 841-843. PubMed
  • Kuyper LM, Kerr T, Li K, Hogg RS, Tyndall MW, Montaner JS, Wood E. Factors associated with buying and selling syringes among injection drug users in a setting with one of North America’s largest syringe exchange programs. Substance Use & Misuse, 2006; 41(6-7): 883-899. PubMed
  • Wood E, Stoltz J, Montaner JS, Kerr T. Evaluating methamphetamine use and risks of injection initiation among street youth: The ARYS study. Harm Reduction Journal, 2006; 3(1): 18. PubMed
  • Miller CL, Strathdee SA, Spittal PM, Kerr T, Li K, Schechter MT, Wood E. Elevated rates of HIV infection among young Aboriginal injection drug users in a Canadian setting. Harm Reduction Journal, 2006; 3(1): 9. PubMed
  • Miller CL, Strathdee SA, Kerr T, Li K, Wood E. Factors associated with early adolescent initiation into injection drug use: Implications for intervention programs. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2006; 38(4): 462-464. PubMed
  • Spittal PM, Hogg RS, Li K, Craib KJ, Recsky M, Johnston C, Montaner JS, Schechter MT, Wood E. Drastic elevations in mortality among female injection drug users in a Canadian setting. AIDS Care, 2006; 18(2): 101-108. PubMed
  • Corneil TA, Kuyper LM, Shoveller J, Hogg RS, Li K, Spittal PM, Schechter MT, Wood E. Unstable housing, associated risk behaviour, and increased risk for HIV infection among injection drug users. Health & Place, 2006; 12(1): 79-85. PubMed
  • Fairbairn N, Wood E, Small W, Stoltz JA, Li K, Kerr T. Risk profile of individuals who provide assistance with illicit drug injections. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2006; 82(1): 41-46. PubMed
  • Kerr T, Stoltz JA, Strathdee S, Li K, Hogg RS, Montaner JS, Wood E. The impact of sex partners’ HIV status on HIV seroconversion in a prospective cohort of injection drug users. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2006; 41(1): 119-123. PubMed
  • Miller CL, Kerr T, Frankish JC, Spittal PM, Li K, Schechter MT, Wood E. Binge drug use independently predicts HIV seroconversion among injection drug users: Implications for public health strategies. Substance Use & Misuse, 2006; 41(2): 199-210. PubMed
  • Wood E, Li K, Miller CL, Hogg RS, Montaner JS, Schechter MT, Kerr T. Baseline self-perceived risk of HIV infection independently predicts the rate of HIV seroconversion in a prospective cohort of injection drug users. International Journal of Epidemiology, 2005; 34(1): 152-158. PubMed
  • O'Connel JM, Kerr T, Li K, Tyndall MW, Hogg RS, Montaner JS, Wood E. Requiring help injecting independently predicts incident HIV infection among injection drug users. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2005; 40(1): 83-88. PubMed
  • Wood E, Montaner JS, Kerr T. HIV risks in incarcerated injection-drug users. Lancet, 2005; 366: 1834-1835. PubMed
  • Wood E, Tyndall MW, Small W, Lloyd-Smith E, Zhang R, Montaner JS, Kerr T. Factors associated with syringe sharing among users of a medically supervised safer injecting facility. American Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2005; 1(1): 50-54.
  • Kuyper LM, Collins CLC, Kerr T, Hogg RS, Li K, Tyndall MW, Montaner JS, Wood E. The prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections in a prospective cohort of injection drug users in Vancouver, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology, 2005; 16(4): 225-229. PubMed
  • Wood E, Tyndall MW, Small W, Stoltz J, Zhang R, O’Connell J, Montaner JS, Kerr T. Safer injecting education for HIV prevention within a medically supervised safer injecting facility. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2005; 16(4): 281-284.
  • Kerr T, Tyndall M, Li K, Montaner JS, Wood E. Safer injection facility use and syringe sharing in injection drug users. Lancet, 2005; 366(9482): 316-318. PubMed
  • Collins CL, Kerr T, Tyndall MW, Marsh DC, Kretz P, Montaner JS, Wood E. Rationale to evaluate medically supervised safer smoking facilities for non-injection illicit drug users. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 2005; 96(5): 344-347. PubMed
  • Wood E, Kerr T. Measuring the public health impact of police activities on illicit drug users. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2005; 16(3): 148-149.
  • Small W, Wood E, Jürgens R, Kerr T. Injection drug use, HIV/AIDS and incarceration: evidence from the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study. HIV/AIDS Policy Law Review, 2005; 10(3): 1,5-10. PubMed
  • Wood E, Li K, Small W, Montaner JS, Schechter MT, Kerr T. Recent incarceration independently associated with syringe sharing by injection drug users. Public Health Reports, 2005; 120(2): 150-156. PubMed
  • Kerr T, Wood E, Grafstein E, Ishida T, Shannon K, Lai C, Montaner JS, Tyndall MW. High rates of primary care and emergency department use among injection drug users in Vancouver. Journal of Public Health, 2005; 27(1): 62-66. PubMed
  • Kuyper LM, Palepu A, Kerr T, Li K, Miller C, Hogg RS, Montaner JS, Wood E. Factors associated with sex-trade involvement among female injection drug users in a Canadian setting. Addiction Research & Theory, 2005; 13(2): 193-199.
  • Kuyper LM, Lampinen TM, Li K, Spittal PM, Hogg RS, Schechter MT, Wood E. Factors associated with sex trade involvement among male participants in a prospective study of injection drug users. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2004; 80(6): 531-535. PubMed
  • Wood E, Tyndall M, Spittal P, Li K, Hogg R, Montaner JS, O’Shaughnessy M, Schechter M. Inability to access addiction treatment and risk of HIV infection among injection drug users. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2004; 36: 750-754. PubMed
  • Kerr T, Wood E, Palepu A, Wilson D, Schechter MT, Tyndall MW. Responding to an explosive HIV epidemic driven by frequent cocaine injection: Is there a role for safe injecting facilities? Journal of Drug Issues, 2003; 33(3): 579-608.
  • Wood E, Spittal PM, Kerr T, Small W, Tyndall MW, O’Shaughnessy MV, Schechter MT. Requiring help injecting as a risk factor for HIV infection in the Vancouver epidemic: Implications for HIV prevention. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 2003; 94(5): 355-359. PubMed
  • Wood E, Tyndall M, Spittal P, Li K, Kerr T, Hogg R, O’Shaughnessy M, Schechter M. Needle exchange and difficulty with needle access during an ongoing HIV epidemic. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2002; 13(2): 95-102.
  • Wood E, Tyndall M, Spittal P, Li K, Kerr T, Hogg R, Montaner JS, O’Shaughnessy M, Schechter M. Factors associated with persistent high-risk syringe sharing in the presence of an established needle exchange program. AIDS, 2002; 16(6): 941-943. PubMed