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HIV Treatment

Advances in HIV treatment in recent years have led to major health improvements for individuals living with HIV/AIDS. However, some groups affected by HIV/AIDS, such as injection drug users, have not benefited from these medical advances to the same extent as others. UHRI investigators have undertaken various studies on the topic of HIV treatment, including studies of access and adherence to HIV treatments among injection drug users.

Publications

  • Slawson G, Milloy MJS, Balneaves L, Simo A, Guillemi S, Hogg R, Montaner J, Wood E, Kerr T. High-intensity cannabis use and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people who use illicit drugs in a Canadian setting. AIDS and Behavior, 2014 Jul 11 [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed
  • Milloy MJ, Montaner JSG, Wood E. Incarceration of people living with HIV/AIDS: Implications for Treatment-as-Prevention. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 2014 Jun 25 [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed
  • Ti L, Milloy MJ, Shannon K, Simo A, Hogg RS, Guillemi S, Montaner J, Kerr T, Wood E. Suboptimal plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression and adherence among sex workers who use illicit drugs in a Canadian setting: An observational cohort study. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2014; 90(5): 418-422. PubMed
  • Nolan S, Wood E. End of the debate about antiretroviral treatment initiation. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2014; 14(4): 258-259. PubMed
  • Ti L, Kerr T. Task shifting redefined: Removing social and structural barriers to improve delivery of HIV services for people who inject drugs. Harm Reduction Journal, 2013; 10(1): 20. PubMed
  • Anema A, Kerr T, Milloy MJ, Feng C, Montaner JS, Wood E. Relationship between hunger, adherence to antiretroviral therapy and plasma HIV RNA suppression among HIV-positive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting. AIDS Care, 2014; 26(4): 459-465. PubMed
  • Reddon H, Milloy MJ, Simo A, Montaner J, Wood E, Kerr T. Methadone maintenance therapy decreases the rate of antiretroviral therapy discontinuation among HIV-positive illicit drug users. AIDS and Behavior, 2013; 18(4): 740-746. PubMed
  • Wood E, Montaner JSG. Guidelines for persons with HIV. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2012; 157(11): 832-833. PubMed
  • Marshall BDL, Wood E. Putting risk compensation to rest: Reframing the relationship between risk behavior and antiretroviral therapy among injection drug users. AIDS, 2012; 26(18): 2405-2407. PubMed
  • Milloy MJ, Marshall BDL, Montaner J, Wood E. Housing status and the health of people living with HIV/AIDS. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 2012; 9(4): 364-374. PubMed
  • Milloy MJ, Montaner J, Wood E. Barriers to HIV treatment among people who use injection drugs: Implications for ‘treatment as prevention’. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, 2012; 7(4): 332-338. PubMed
  • Mann B, Milloy MJ, Kerr T, Zhang R, Montaner J, Wood E. Improved adherence to modern antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected injecting drug users. HIV Medicine, 2012; 13(10): 596-601. PubMed
  • Hadland SE, Milloy MJ, Kerr T, Zhang R, Guillemi S, Hogg RS, Montaner JS, Wood E. Young age predicts poor antiretroviral adherence and viral load suppression among injection drug users. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 2012; 26(5): 274-280. PubMed
  • Milloy MJ, Marshall B, Kerr T, Buxton J, Rhodes T, Montaner J, Wood E. Social and structural factors associated with HIV disease progression among illicit drug users: A systematic review. AIDS, 2012; 26(9): 1049-1063. PubMed Summary
  • Ti L, Hayashi K, Kaplan K, Suwannawong P, Fu E, Wood E, Kerr T. HIV testing and willingness to get HIV testing at a peer-run drop-in centre for people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand. BMC Public Health, 2012; 12(1): 189. PubMed
  • Sangsari S, Milloy MJ, Ibrahim A, Kerr T, Zhang R, Montaner J, Wood E. Physician experience and rates of plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression among illicit drug users: An observational study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 2012; 12(1): 22. PubMed
  • Werb D, Milloy MJ, Kerr T, Zhang R, Montaner J, Wood E. Injection drug use and HIV antiretroviral therapy discontinuation in a Canadian setting. AIDS and Behavior, 2013; 17(1): 68-73. PubMed
  • Kerr T, Marshall BDL, Milloy MJ, Zhang R, Guillemi S, Montaner JSG, Wood E. Patterns of heroin and cocaine injection and plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression among a long-term cohort of injection drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2012; 124(1-2): 108-112. PubMed
  • Wood E, Milloy MJ, Montaner JSG. HIV treatment as prevention among injection drug users. Current Opinions in HIV and AIDS, 2012; 7(2): 151-156. PubMed
  • Milloy MJ, Kerr T, Buxton J, Rhodes T, Krüsi A, Guillemi S, Hogg R, Montaner J, Wood E. Social and environmental predictors of plasma HIV RNA rebound among injection drug users treated with antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2012; 59(4): 393-399. PubMed
  • Milloy MJ, Kerr T, Bangsberg DR, Buxton J, Parashar S, Guillemi S, Montaner J, Wood E. Homelessness as a structural barrier to effective antiretroviral therapy among HIV-seropositive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 2012; 26(1): 60-67. PubMed Summary
  • Small W, Kerr T. HIV treatment as prevention and the role of applied social science research. Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research, 2011; 2(6): 102e.
  • Csete J, Kaplan K, Hayashi K, Fairbairn N, Suwannawong P, Zhang R, Wood E, Kerr T. Compulsory drug detention center experiences among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 2011; 11(1): 12. PubMed
  • Wood E, Montaner J. Time to get serious about HIV antiretroviral resistance. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2011; 11(10): 723-724. PubMed
  • Shannon K, Kerr T, Milloy M, Anema A, Zhang R, Montaner JS, Wood E. Severe food insecurity is associated with elevated unprotected sex among HIV-seropositive injection drug users independent of HAART use. AIDS, 2011; 25(16): 2037-2042. PubMed
  • Milloy MJ, Wood E. Transmitted antiretroviral-resistant HIV: A coming anarchy? Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2011; 11(5): 336-337. PubMed
  • Nolan S, Milloy MJ, Zhang R, Kerr T, Hogg RS, Montaner JSG, Wood E. Adherence and plasma HIV RNA response to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-seropositive injection drug users in a Canadian setting. AIDS Care, 2011; 23(8): 980-987. PubMed
  • Palepu A, Milloy MJ, Kerr T, Zhang R, Wood E. Homelessness and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among a cohort of HIV-infected injection drug users. Journal of Urban Health, 2011; 88(3): 545-555. PubMed
  • Fairbairn N, Kerr T, Milloy MJ, Zhang R, Montaner J, Wood E. Crystal methamphetamine injection predicts slower HIV RNA suppression among injection drug users. Addictive Behaviors, 2011; 36(7): 762-763. PubMed
  • Kuyper L, Milloy MJ, Marshall BDL, Zhang R, Kerr T, Montaner JSG, Wood E. Does initiation of HIV antiretroviral therapy influence patterns of syringe lending among injection drug users? Addictive Behaviors, 2011; 36(5): 560-563. PubMed
  • Milloy MJ, Kerr T, Buxton J, Rhodes T, Guillemi S, Hogg R, Montaner J, Wood E. Dose-response effect of incarceration events on non-adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy among injection drug users. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2011; 203(9): 1215-1221. PubMed Summary
  • Tapp C, Milloy MJ, Kerr T, Zhang R, Guillemi S, Hogg RS, Montaner J, Wood E. Female gender predicts lower access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a setting of free healthcare. BMC Infectious Diseases, BMC Infectious Diseases, 2011; 11(1): 86. PubMed
  • Milloy MJ, Wood E. HIV treatment in the criminal justice system. HIV Therapy, 2010; 4(5): 519-522.
  • Krüsi A, Milloy MJ, Kerr T, Zhang R, Guillemi S, Hogg R, Montaner J, Wood E. Ongoing drug use and outcomes from highly active antiretroviral therapy among injection drug users in a Canadian setting. Antiviral Therapy, 2010; 15(5): 789-796. PubMed
  • Marshall BDL, Milloy MJ, Kerr T, Zhang R, Montaner JSG, Wood E. No evidence of increased sexual risk behaviour after initiating antiretroviral therapy among people who inject drugs. AIDS, 2010; 24(14): 2271-2278. PubMed
  • Werb D, Mills EJ, Montaner JSG, Wood E. Risk of resistance to highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive injecting drug users: A meta-analysis. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2010; 10(7): 464-469. PubMed
  • Uhlmann S, Milloy MJ, Kerr T, Zhang R, Guillemi S, Marsh D, Hogg RS, Montaner JSG, Wood E. Methadone maintenance therapy promotes initiation of antiretroviral therapy among injection drug users. Addiction, 2010; 105(5): 907-913. PubMed
  • Krüsi A, Wood E, Montaner J, Kerr T. Social and structural determinants of HAART access and adherence among injection drug users. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2010; 21(1): 4-9. PubMed
  • Small W, Wood E, Betteridge G, Montaner J, Kerr T. The impact of incarceration upon adherence to HIV treatment among HIV-positive injection drug users: A qualitative study. AIDS Care, 2009; 21(6): 708-714. Summary
  • Wood E, Kerr T, Marshall BD, Li K, Zhang R, Harrigan PR, Hogg RS, Montaner JS. Longitudinal community plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations and incidence of HIV-1 among injecting drug users: Prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal, 2009; 338: b1649. PubMed Summary
  • Wood E, Kerr T, Zhang R, Guillemi S, Palepu A, Hogg R, Montaner JS. Poor adherence to HIV monitoring and treatment guidelines for HIV-infected injection drug users. HIV Medicine, 2008; 9(7); 503-507. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Lima VD, Kerr T, Yip B, Marshall BDL, Montaner JSG. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and survival in HIV-infected injection drug users. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2008; 300(5): 550-554. PubMed
  • Kerr T, Hogg R, Yip B, Tyndall M, Montaner JS, Wood E. Validity of self-reported adherence among injection drug users. Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care, 2008; 7(4): 157-159. PubMed
  • Wood E, Montaner JSG. Antiretroviral therapy: A key part of the public health response to injection drug use. Addiction, 2008; 103(4): 660-661. PubMed
  • Wood E, Kerr T, Tyndall MW, Montaner JSG. A review of barriers and facilitators of HIV treatment among injection drug users. AIDS, 2008; 22(11): 1247-1256. PubMed
  • Blades R, Li K, Kerr T, Tyndall MW, Montaner JS, Wood E. Contribution of HIV to mortality among injection drug users in the era of HAART. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2007; 46(5): 655-656. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Yip B, Moore D, Harrigan PR, Montaner JSG. Superior virological response to boosted protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy in an observational treatment programme. HIV Medicine, 2007; 8(2): 80-85. PubMed
  • Wood E, Montaner JS. When to initiate HIV antiretroviral therapy: Do benefits other than survival deserve greater attention? Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2007; 45(2):131-2. PubMed
  • Hill A, Wood E. Balancing effectiveness and access to HIV treatment in the developing world. AIDS, 2007; 21(3): 361-363. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Kerr T, Bonner S, Strathdee SA, Palepu A, Montaner JS. Rates of inappropriate antiretroviral prescription among injection drug users. Harm Reduction Journal, 2007; 4(2). PubMed
  • Wood E, Kerr T, Tyndall MW, Zhang R, Hogg RS, Strathdee SA, Montaner JS. Rates of HIV/AIDS care and antiretroviral response among active injection drug users. Addiction, 2007; 102(9): 1503-1505. PubMed
  • Wood E, Kerr, T, Montaner JS. HIV treatment, injection drug use, and illicit drug policies. Lancet, 2007; 370(9581): 8-10. PubMed
  • Braitstein P, Li K, Kerr T, Montaner JS, Hogg RS, Wood E. Differences in access to care among injection drug users infected either with HIV and hepatitis C or hepatitis C alone. AIDS Care, 2006; 18(7): 690-693. PubMed
  • Wood E, Kerr T, Hogg RS, Palepu A, Zhang R, Strathdee SA, Montaner JS. Impact of HIV testing on uptake of HIV therapy among antiretroviral naïve HIV-infected injection drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2006; 25(5): 451-454. PubMed
  • Maas B, Kerr T, Fairbairn N, Montaner JS, Wood E. Pharmacokinetic interactions between HIV antiretroviral therapy and drugs used to treat opioid dependence. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 2006; 2(4): 533-543. PubMed
  • Montaner JS, Hogg R, Wood E, Kerr T, Tyndall M, Levy AR, Harrigan PR. The case for expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy to curb the growth of the HIV epidemic. Lancet, 2006; 368(9534): 531-536. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Yip B, Moore D, Harrigan PR, Montaner JS. Impact of baseline viral load and adherence on survival of HIV-infected adults with baseline CD4 cell counts ≥ 200 cells/µl. AIDS, 2006; 20(8): 1117-1123. PubMed
  • Lloyd-Smith E, Brodkin E, Wood E, Kerr T, Tyndall MW, Montaner JS, Hogg RS. Impact of HAART and injection drug use on life expectancy of two HIV-positive cohorts in British Columbia. AIDS, 2006; 20(3): 445-450. PubMed
  • Wood E, Kerr T, Palepu A, Zhang R, Strathdee SA, Tyndall MW, Montaner JS, Hogg RS. Slower uptake of HIV antiretroviral therapy among Aboriginal injection drug users. Journal of Infection, 2006; 52(4): 233-236. PubMed
  • Wood E, Kerr T, Hogg RS, Zhang R, Tyndall MW, Montaner JS. Validity of self-reported antiretroviral therapy use among injection drug users. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2006; 41(4): 530-531. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Yip B, Dong WW, Wynhoven B, Mo T, Brumme CJ, Montaner JS, Harrigan PR. Rates of antiretroviral resistance among HIV-infected patients with and without a history of injection drug use. AIDS, 2005; 19(11): 1189-1195. PubMed
  • Kerr T, Marshall A, Walsh J, Palepu A, Tyndall M, Montaner J, Hogg R, Wood E. Determinants of HAART discontinuation among injection drug users. AIDS Care, 2005; 17(5): 539-549. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Harrigan PR, Montaner JS. When to initiate antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected adults: A review for clinicians and patients. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2005; 5(7): 407-414. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Kerr T, Palepu A, Zhang R, Montaner JS. Impact of accessing methadone on the time to initiating HIV treatment among antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected injection drug users. AIDS, 2005; 19(8): 837-839. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Yip B, Harrigan PR, Montaner JS. Why are baseline HIV RNA levels 100,000 copies/mL or greater associated with mortality after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy? Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2005; 38(3): 289-295. PubMed
  • Kerr T, Walsh J, Lloyd-Smith E, Wood E. Measuring adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy: Implications for research and practice. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 2005; 2(4): 200-205. PubMed
  • Kerr T, Palepu A, Barness G, Walsh J, Hogg R, Montaner J, Tyndall M, Wood E. Psychosocial determinants of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy among injection drug users in Vancouver. Antiviral Therapy, 2004; 9(3): 407-414. PubMed
  • Kuyper LM, Hogg RS, Montaner JS, Schechter MT, Wood E. The cost of inaction on HIV transmission among injection drug users and the potential for effective interventions. Journal of Urban Health, 2004; 81(4): 655-660. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Bonner S, Kerr T, Li K, Palepu A, Guillemi S, Schechter MT, Montaner JS. Staging for antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected drug users. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2004; 292(10): 1175-1177. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Yip B, Harrigan PR, Montaner JS. Earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy does not protect against the deleterious effects of non-adherence. AIDS, 2004; 18(18): 2432-2434.
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Yip B, Harrigan PR, Montaner JS. Using baseline CD4 cell count and plasma HIV RNA to guide the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Revista de Investigacion Clinica, 2004; (56): 232-236. PubMed
  • Palepu A, Tyndall MW, Chan K, Wood E, Montaner JS, Hogg RS. Initiating highly active therapy and continuation of HIV care: The impact of incarceration and prison release on adherence and HIV treatment outcomes. Antiviral Therapy, 2004; 9(5): 713-719. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Yip B, Harrigan PR, Montaner JS. CD4+ T-cell gain with nonnucleoside or protease inhibitors: Convenience may not always be the most convenient (reply). Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2004; 36(2): 760-761.
  • Wood E, Montaner JS, Yip B, Tyndall M, Schechter MT, O’Shaughnessy MV, Hogg RS. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and CD4+ T cell count responses among HIV-infected injection drug users. Antiviral Therapy, 2004; 9(2): 229-235. PubMed
  • Wood E, Montaner JS, Braitstein P, Schechter M, O’Shaughnessy MV, Hogg R. Elevated rates of antiretroviral therapy discontinuation among injection drug users: Implications for drug policy and public health. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2004; 15(2): 133-138.
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Yip B, Harrigan PR, O’Shaughnessy MV, Montaner JS. The impact of adherence on CD4 cell count responses among HIV-infected patients. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2004; 35(3): 261-268. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Heath KV, De La Rosa R, Lee N, Yip B, O’Shaughnessy MV, Montaner JS. Provider bias in the selection of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy and HIV treatment outcomes in observational studies. AIDS, 2003; 17(18): 2629-2634. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Yip B, Harrigan PR, O’Shaughnessy MV, Montaner JS. Effect of medication adherence on survival of HIV-infected adults who start highly active antiretroviral therapy when the CD4+ cell count is 0.200 to 0.350 x 109 cells/L. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2003; 139(10): 810-816. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Yip B, Quercia R, Harrigan PR, O’Shaughnessy MV, Montaner JS. Higher baseline levels of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA are associated with increased mortality after initiation of triple-drug antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2003; 188(10): 1421-1425. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Yip B, O’Shaughnessy MV, Montaner JS. CD4 cell count response to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor- or protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy in an observational cohort study. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2003; 34(3): 347-348. PubMed
  • Wood E, Montaner JS, Bangsberg DR, Tyndall MW, Strathdee SA, O’Shaughnessy MV, Hogg RS. Expanding access to HIV antiretroviral therapy among marginalized populations in the developed world. AIDS, 2003; 17(17): 2419-2427. PubMed
  • Wood E, Montaner JS, Tyndall MW, Schechter M, O’Shaughnessy MV, Hogg R. Prevalence and correlates of untreated HIV-1 infection among persons who have died in the era of modern antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2003; 188(8): 1164-1170. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Yip B, Harrigan PR, O’Shaughnessy MV, Montaner JS. Is there a baseline CD4 cell count that precludes a survival response to modern antiretroviral therapy? AIDS, 2003; 17(5): 711-720. PubMed
  • Palepu A, Tyndall MW, Li K, Yip B, O'Shaughnessy MV, Schechter MT, Montaner JS, Hogg RS. Alcohol use and incarceration adversely affect HIV-1 RNA suppression among injection drug users starting antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Urban Health, 2003; 80(4): 667-675. PubMed
  • Wood E, Montaner JS, Yip B, Tyndall MW, Schechter MT, O'Shaughnessy MV, Hogg RS. Adherence and plasma HIV RNA responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-1 infected injection drug users. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2003; 169(7): 656-661. PubMed
  • Wood E, Montaner JS, Chan K, Schechter MT, Tyndall M, O’Shaughnessy MV, Hogg RS. Socioeconomic status, access to triple therapy, and survival from HIV disease since 1996. AIDS, 2002; 16(15): 2065-2072. PubMed
  • Wood E, Hogg RS, Yip B, Tyndall, MW, Sherlock CH, Harrigan RP, O’Shaughnessy MV, Montaner JS. “Discordant” increases in CD4 cell count relative to plasma viral load in a closely followed cohort of patients initiating antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2002; 30(2): 159-166. PubMed
  • Montaner JS, Harris M, Harrigan RP, Hogg R, Wood E. A compromise strategy for patients with multiple drug failure. AIDS, 2001;15(18): 2470. PubMed
  • Wood E, Braitstein P, Montaner JS, O’Shaughnessy MV, Hogg RS. HIV/AIDS epidemiology. Lancet, 2000; 356(9238): 1357-1358.
  • Wood E, Yip B, Hogg RS, Sherlock CH, Jahnke N, Harrigan PR, O’Shaughnessy MV, Montaner JS. Full suppression of viral load is needed to achieve an optimal CD4 cell count response among patients on triple drug antiretroviral therapy. AIDS, 2000; 14(13): 1955-60. PubMed
  • Wood E, Braitstein P, Schechter MT, Tyndall M, Montaner JS, O’Shaughnessy MV, Hogg RS. Extent to which low-level use of antiretroviral treatment could curb the AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet, 2000; 355: 2095-2100. PubMed
  • Wood E, Low-Beer S, Bartholomew K, Landolt M, Oram D, O’Shaughnessy MV, Hogg RS. Modern antiretroviral therapy improves life expectancy of gay and bisexual males in Vancouver’s West End. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 2000; 91: 125-128. PubMed/10832178
  • Wood E, Schechter MT, Tyndall MW, Montaner JS, O'Shaughnessy MV, Hogg RS. Antiretroviral medication use among injection drug users: Two potential futures. AIDS, 2000; 14(9): 1229-1235. PubMed