Home Site Map Search Members Only Contact Us

In Canada and other parts of the world, incarceration is a key determinant of health among injection drug users. Prisons are known to be environments where risky drug-using behaviour occurs. UHRI investigators have conducted several quantitative and qualitative studies pertaining to incarceration and health, and have documented the impact of incarceration on high-risk injecting practices and adherence to antiretroviral therapy.


  • Barker B, Alfred GT, Fleming K, Nguyen P, Wood E, Kerr T, DeBeck K. Aboriginal street-involved youth experience elevated risk of incarceration.Public Health, 2015; 129(12): 1662-1668. PubMed
  • Milloy MJ, Wood E. Withdrawal from methadone in US prisons: Cruel and unusual? Lancet, 2015; 386(9991): 316-318. PubMed
  • Koehn JD, Bach P, Hayashi K, Nguyen P, Kerr T, Milloy MJ, Rieb L, Wood E. Impact of incarceration on rates of methadone use in a community recruited cohort of injection drug users. Addictive Behaviors, 2015; 46(1): 1-4. PubMed
  • Milloy MJ, Montaner JSG, Wood E. Incarceration of people living with HIV/AIDS: Implications for Treatment-as-Prevention. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 2014; 11(3): 308-316. PubMed
  • Milloy MJS, Kerr T, Salters K, Samji H, Guillemi S, Montaner J, Wood E. Incarceration is associated with used syringe lending among active injection drug users with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA: a longitudinal analysis. BMC Infectious Diseases, 2013; 13(1): 565. PubMed
  • Omura J, Wood E, Nguyen P, Kerr T, DeBeck K. Incarceration among street-involved youth in a Canadian study: Implications for health and policy interventions. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2014; 25(2): 291-296. PubMed
  • Kerr T, Hayashi K, Ti L, Kaplan K, Suwannawong P, Wood E. The impact of compulsory drug detention exposure on the avoidance of healthcare among injection drug users in Thailand. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2014; 25(1): 171-174. PubMed
  • Kinner SA, Milloy MJ, Wood E, Qi J, Zhang R, Kerr T. Incidence and risk factors for non-fatal overdose among a cohort of recently incarcerated illicit drug users. Addictive Behaviors, 2012; 37(6): 691-696. PubMed
  • Csete J, Kaplan K, Hayashi K, Fairbairn N, Suwannawong P, Zhang R, Wood E, Kerr T. Compulsory drug detention center experiences among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 2011; 11(1): 12. PubMed
  • Milloy MJ, Kerr T, Buxton J, Rhodes T, Guillemi S, Hogg R, Montaner J, Wood E. Dose-response effect of incarceration events on non-adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy among injection drug users. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2011; 203(9): 1215-1221. PubMed Summary
  • Milloy M-J, Wood E. HIV treatment in the criminal justice system. HIV Therapy, 2010; 4(5): 519-522.
  • Milloy MJ, Wood E, Lloyd-Smith E, Grafstein E, Tyndall M, Montaner J, Kerr T. Recent incarceration linked to cutaneous injection-related infections among active injection drug users in a Canadian setting. Journal of Community Health, 2010; 35(6): 660-666. PubMed
  • Hayashi K, Milloy M-J, Fairbairn N, Kaplan K, Suwannawong P, Lai C, Wood E, Kerr T. Incarceration experiences among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand. BMC Public Health, 2009; 9(1): 492. PubMed
  • Milloy M-JS, Wood E, Tyndall M, Lai C, Montaner J, Kerr T. Recent incarceration and use of a supervised injection facility in Vancouver, Canada. Addiction Research & Theory, 2009; 17(5): 538-545.
  • Milloy M-JS, Kerr T, Buxton J, Montaner JS, Wood E. Methamphetamine use and rates of incarceration among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting: A cross-sectional analysis. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 2009; 4(1): 17. PubMed
  • Small W, Wood E, Betteridge G, Montaner J, Kerr T. The impact of incarceration upon adherence to HIV treatment among HIV-positive injection drug users: A qualitative study. AIDS Care, 2009; 21(6): 708-714. Summary
  • Milloy M-JS, Buxton J, Wood E, Li K, Montaner JSG, Kerr T. Elevated HIV risk behaviour among recently incarcerated injection drug users in a Canadian setting: A longitudinal analysis. BMC Public Health, 2009; 9(1): 156. PubMed Summary
  • DeBeck K, Kerr T, Li K, Milloy M, Montaner J, Wood E. Incarceration and drug use patterns among a cohort of injection drug users. Addiction, 2009; 104: 69-76. PubMed Summary
  • Milloy M-J, Wood E, Small W, Tyndall M, Lai C, Montaner JS, Kerr T. Incarceration experiences in a cohort of active injection drug users. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2008; 27(6): 693-699. PubMed Summary
  • Werb D, Kerr T, Marsh D, Li K, Montaner J, Wood E. Effect of methadone treatment on incarceration rates among injection drug users. European Addiction Research, 2008; 14(3): 143-149. PubMed
  • Werb D, Kerr T, Small W, Li K, Montaner J, Wood E. HIV risks associated with incarceration among injection drug users: implications for prison-based public health strategies. Journal of Public Health (Oxford), 2008; 30(2): 126-132. PubMed Summary
  • Kerr T, Fairbairn N, Tyndall M, Marsh D, Li K, Montaner JS, Wood E. Predictors of non-fatal overdose among a cohort of polysubstance-using injection drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2007; 87(1): 39-45. PubMed
  • Werb D, Elliott R, Fischer B, Wood E, Montaner J, Kerr T. Drug treatment courts in Canada: An evidence-based review. HIV/AIDS Policy & Law Review, 2007; 12(2-3):12-17. PubMed
  • Wood E, Lim R, Kerr T. Initiation of opiate addiction in a Canadian prison: A case report. Harm Reduction Journal, 2006; 3(11). PubMed
  • Kerr T. Reconsidering the public health failings of the criminal justice system: A reflection on the case of Scott Ortiz. Harm Reduction Journal, 2006; 3(25). PubMed
  • Wood E, Li K, Small W, Montaner JS, Schechter MT, Kerr T. Recent incarceration independently associated with syringe sharing by injection drug users. Public Health Reports, 2005; 120(2): 150-156. PubMed
  • Wood E, Montaner J, Kerr T. HIV risks in incarcerated injection drug users. Lancet, 2005; 366(9500): 1834-35. PubMed
  • Small W, Kain S, Laliberte N, Schechter MT, O’Shaughnessy MV, Spittal PM. Incarceration, addiction and harm reduction: Inmates experience injecting drugs in prison. Substance Use & Misuse, 2005; 40(6): 831-843. PubMed
  • Small W, Wood E, Jürgens R, Kerr T. Injection drug use, HIV/AIDS and incarceration: Evidence from the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study. HIV/AIDS Policy & Law Review, 2005; 10(3): 5-10. PubMed
  • Lloyd-Smith E, Kerr T, Hogg RS, Li K, Montaner JS, Wood E. Prevalence and correlates of abscesses among a cohort of injection drug users. Harm Reduction Journal, 2005; 2(1): 24. PubMed
  • Kerr T, Marshall A, Walsh J, Palepu A, Tyndall M, Montaner JS, Hogg R, Wood E. Determinants of HAART discontinuation among injection drug users. AIDS Care, 2005; 17(5): 539-549. PubMed
  • Kerr T, Wood E, Betteridge G, Lines R, Jürgens R. Harm reduction in prisons: A ‘rights based analysis’. Critical Public Health, 2004; 14(4), 345-360.
  • Palepu A, Tyndall MW, Chan K, Wood E, Montaner JS, Hogg RS. Initiating highly active therapy and continuation of HIV care: The impact of incarceration and prison release on adherence and HIV treatment outcomes. Antiviral Therapy, 2004; 9(5): 713-719. PubMed