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Sex Work

 Sex work is common to many urban environments, including areas with large open drug scenes. Sex work carries significant health risks, particularly for women who use drugs and engage in sex work as a means of daily survival. UHRI investigators have studied the relationships among sex trade involvement, other indicators of health, and illicit drug use.


  • Hayashi K, Daly-Grafstein B, Dong H, Wood E, Kerr T, DeBeck K. The relationship between violence and engagement in drug dealing and sex work among street-involved youth. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 2016; 107(1): e88-e93. PubMed
  • Chettiar J, Shannon K, Wood E, Zhang R, Kerr T. Survival sex work involvement among street-involved youth who use drugs in a Canadian setting. Journal of Public Health, 2010; 32(3): 322-327. PubMed
  • Johnston CL, Callon C, Li K, Wood E, Kerr T. Offer of financial incentives for unprotected sex in the context of sex work. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2010; 29(2): 144-149. PubMed Summary
  • Marshall BDL, Shannon K, Kerr T, Zhang R, Wood E. Survival sex work and increased HIV risk among sexual minority street-involved youth. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2010; 53(5): 661-664. PubMed
  • Shannon K, Kerr T, Marshall B, Li K, Zhang R, Strathdee SA, Tyndall MW, Montaner JSG, Wood E. Survival sex work involvement as a primary risk factor for hepatitis C virus acquisition in drug-using youths in a Canadian setting. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2010; 164(1): 61-65. PubMed
  • Marshall BDL, Wood E. Sex work and sex exchange among street children: An urgent need for a global response. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2009; 44(3): 201-202. PubMed
  • Fairbairn N, Small W, Shannon K, Wood E, Kerr T. Seeking refuge from violence in street-based drug scenes: Women’s experiences in North America’s first supervised injection facility. Social Science & Medicine, 2008; 67(5): 817-823. PubMed Summary
  • DeBeck K, Shannon K, Wood E, Li K, Montaner J, Kerr T. Income generating activities of people who inject drugs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2007; 91(1): 50-56. PubMed
  • Wood E, Schachar J, Li K, Stoltz J-A, Miller C, Lloyd-Smith E, Tyndall MW, Kerr T. Sex trade involvement is associated with elevated HIV incidence among injection drug users in Vancouver. Addiction Research & Theory, 2007; 15(3): 321-325.
  • Stoltz JA, Shannon K, Kerr T, Zhang R, Montaner JS, Wood E. Associations between childhood maltreatment and sex work in a cohort of drug-using youth. Social Science & Medicine, 2007; 65(6): 1214-1221. PubMed
  • Kuyper LM, Palepu A, Kerr T, Li K, Miller C, Hogg RS, Montaner JS, Wood E. Factors associated with sex-trade involvement among female injection drug users in a Canadian setting. Addiction Research & Theory, 2005; 13(2): 193-199.
  • Lloyd-Smith E, Kerr T, Hogg RS, Li K, Montaner JS, Wood E. Prevalence and correlates of abscesses among a cohort of injection drug users. Harm Reduction Journal, 2005; 2(1): 24. PubMed
  • Kuyper LM, Lampinen TM, Li K, Spittal PM, Hogg RS, Schechter MT, Wood E. Factors associated with sex trade involvement among male participants in a prospective study of injection drug users. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2004; 80(6): 531-535. PubMed